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2020年世界大赛冠军:长期工作量

  • 通过  本汉森
  • 2019年5月22日
为什么做运动员’参加比赛?最简单的答案:“to get better”。更具体地说,运动员训练以变得更健康,并在更长的时间内有效地比赛。这种生理反应的核心是一种称为“chronic workload”. This article takes a deep dive into 长期工作量 in pitchers of all ages, and addresses key seasonal anomalies that expose pitchers to excess risk. More importantly, this article takes a look at the 2018 World Series matchup, and offers insight into the decline and demise of Dodgers' Rich Hill's 长期工作量 in the post-season. Does the secret to winning championships lie in 长期工作量? 

Chronic workload has taken many forms over the past decades. In baseball, most think of 长期工作量 as a total inning count over a season. With the advent of ASMI’s 十年青年学习, 长期工作量 also took the form of “总竞争月份”在一个日历年中,连续9个多月参加比赛的投手遭受长期过度使用伤害的风险较高。 

但是,随着可穿戴技术的发展,出现了新的工作量度量范式。它始于GPS数据,一些同行的评论来自 Tim Gabbett博士.

Defined as a 28-day average of time spent running at high velocity, a new objective form of 长期工作量 was created. Fused with rich injury data associated with each athletic exposure, Tim Gabbett博士’s research found that players with the highest 长期工作量s had the lowest number of injuries. It’s a very intuitive finding- the more fit a body is, the more it can tolerate during competition. This is to say that 长期工作量 creates resilience to fatigue and creates capacity, or stamina.

在硬币的另一面,是发现急性:慢性比率(ACR)。本文不’t focus on the ACR (在这里阅读更多),但对于新读者来说,每周工作量除以每月工作量(ACR)的比率是疲劳和 受伤风险.

At Motus, these measures of acute and 长期工作量s have been applied to the elbow joint. Instead of computing daily load as “高速运转的时间”, Motus first computes daily workload as the total valgus torque from all throws in a day. Next, 长期工作量 is calculated as a 28-day rolling average of daily workload.  

高中投手

每年,成千上万的高中投手参加全国各地的展示活动,以期成为全国名册’所有美国队。大多数全美球队的选拔赛是在11月和12月,每年的1月都有一个季前全美比赛,供投手展示自己的才华。鉴于秋季和冬季通常是“off-season”,明显的问题是“这些运动员准备投掷吗?”

根据Motus数据库中典型的高中投手的长期工作量分析,该投手对于11月和12月的任何量的竞技投掷都未做好充分的准备。具体来说,投手’s 长期工作量 in this analysis was merely 30% of the average in-season 长期工作量 of high school pitchers.

使用急性:慢性比率和工作量模拟,针对以下3种情况计算了预计的俯仰极限:11月的橱柜试训,1月的季前全美比赛和常规的季内赛。当最终的ACR超过1.3并且运动员进入疲劳状态时,将定义极限。

在十一月(慢性= 4.0),这个投手真的不应该’他们甚至踩过一个土墩(预热时ACR大于1.3)。一月份(时间= 6.0),该投手可能会在ACR达到1.3之前承受14个游戏中的投手。在常规赛季(慢性= 15.5)中,投手可以承受足够的比赛投球(超过100个投球),同时将ACR保持在1.3以下。 

尽管这只是高中投手的一个样本,但它指出了高中投手需要做出更好决策的关键时期。在进行任何样板展示或比赛之前,玩家需要花费至少6周的时间来准备手臂,以最大程度地发力。这可以简单地通过适当设计的投掷程序来完成。

高校投手

A more advanced group of pitchers face a similar dilemma in regards to 长期工作量. Colleges enter each fall season with the goal of testing incoming freshmen and transfers to set initial rosters for the team. While many pitchers are under-prepared for the fall competition, an even more significant hurdle is placed on pitchers and teams—期末考试和圣诞节假期。

Seen below, the 长期工作量 of this collegiate pitcher peaks around 4.0 workload units at the end of October. As the academic schedule intensifies and team breaks from mandatory practices, the 长期工作量 declined by 50% leading into Christmas Break. The cessation of throwing over the following two weeks resulted in a near full depletion in 长期工作量.

Upon return to campus, the pitcher was left with a mere six weeks to build ample 长期工作量 for their spring break trip and season kick-off. College players and coaches need to be cognizant of this decline in 长期工作量 leading up to and during holiday break, and need to create appropriate throwing programs to maintain some level of chronic fitness during the winter.

小联盟投手

工作负载管理的挑战并不止于此。专业投手面临着其中所有最具挑战性的时间表。除了需要在春季训练的整个过程中适当增加速度(许多人由于受伤而失败)之外,当运动员从训练营休息并前往其会员时也会发生异常情况。 

在MiLB投手的样本中,花了几天时间才到会员那里,使球员无法训练。此外,当玩家确实返回其会员时,工作量逐渐减少,导致长期负担显着下降。玩家通常会在一个赛季初期快速承受工作量,然后在一个赛季初期建立健身。 

Not only does this fitness of 长期工作量 decay, but most players are still in a state of not being trained enough when they break to their affiliate. Teams and players need to create long-term workload programs that build 长期工作量 well into the month of May.

A second anomaly of 长期工作量 decay occurs right after the all-star break. Often times, players are left with several days of rest, which causes the 长期工作量 to decline. If not managed properly, the acute spikes upon return may be too dramatic and may lead to high ACR.

Teams and players need to minimize the effect of travel time when affiliates break for season or the all-star break, and need to make sure workload programs continue to progress 长期工作量 safely when throwing resumes.

美国职业棒球大联盟投手

As the stakes get higher, the challenges of workload management do not subside. Even at the highest level of competition in baseball- the World Series- pitchers are prone to 长期工作量 decay that needs to be properly managed. 

在2018年,洛杉矶道奇队和波士顿红袜队在世界大赛中对决,波士顿以强劲的时尚头衔赢得了洛杉矶的4场’单赢。对波士顿的进攻投球绝非易事,但是如果投球手更具耐力呢?他们能避免疲劳并增加指挥力吗? 

Rich Hill的工作负载模拟’2018赛季与标准的周中职业投手的工作量融合在一起。下面的分析表明希尔’s 长期工作量 decayed by nearly 20% in the post-season. The effect of this decline is significant. Rather than pitching deep into games with less fatigue, a 20% decline in 长期工作量 removed over 112 potential extra pitches for Hill.

是什么原因造成了这种下降?首先,它’当日程安排变得不稳定并且投球人员需要更长的休息时间时,很难在季后赛中维持工作量。建立或维护工作负载的唯一方法是增加两次启动之间的工作量(例如,longtoss,bullpens等)。 

However, given the need to remain agile in the 淡季 and fight for each win, the risk of bringing a pitcher to a fatigued state during non-game work is not the smartest thing to do. Therefore, the primary solution is to make a push to build more 长期工作量 after the All-Star break. If 长期工作量 is increased by significant levels, the natural taper that ensues in the 淡季 will not effect stamina and capacity of the pitching staff as much.

The best way to improve 长期工作量 after the All-Star break, is to move from a 5-man rotation, to a  6-man rotation. Seen below, a 6-man rotation allows for a 13% increase in 长期工作量. This is realized, as the 6-man rotation allows for greater between-start workloads than a typical 5-man rotation. 

虽然八局可能帮助希尔获得1场WAR,但道奇队将需要其他投手人员提供更多帮助才能赢得世界大赛。再说一次,这全都是模拟。但是这个概念非常引人注目。

Whether in high school, college, the minor leagues, or the big leagues, workload management can be a powerful tool to increase throwing capacity and avoid 受伤风险. Specific to the motusTHROW sleeve, the tool is only usable in a helpful manner. This clinically validated tool has the ability to measure the 长期工作量 throughout a season and career, and also provides fatigue measures via the acute:chronic ratio. Furthermore, the workload data generated by the sleeve empowers coaches, performance staff, physical therapists and parents with the ability to program out safe throwing routines with precision and care. 


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本汉森是生物力学副总裁&Motus Global的创新。他的教育学历是生物医学工程和数学(BS。),在获得博士学位期间,他曾在密尔沃基酿酒人大学担任生物力学工程师。在Marquette大学获得生物电子学博士学位。

他于2012年加入Motus,成为第一位员工,并帮助领导产品开发团队设计IMU硬件,基于传感器的生物力学算法和用于人员工作量管理的软件投影系统。

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